Monday, April 22, 2013


"Fairtax is like taxing moonbeams and baby farts for 2 trillion dollars."

Fairtax sounds great.  If only it were not for that "detail" of 2 trillion dollars in other taxes they "forget"  to mention.

If you can tax baby farts and moonbeams for 2 Trillion, Fairtax can work exactly as they claimed. Otherwise, it's a fraud. You decide which.....

Fairtax fine print has it all in there.  Cleverly, but it's there.

The definitions, the revue, the "tax base information."

Fairtax documents even have the clever "assumptions".

The fine print, when looked at closely (which means read it all) is drastically different than the slogans.  Oh yes, there is a retail sales tax, for a small part of it.

The biggest taxes are the other taxes they did not tell you about.  And they did not tell you because they did not want you to know.  

The "Tax Base" documents, and the definitions in HR25 are key.

But please- - please -- pass Fairtax. It would be hilarious,  and the fools that bought into it might finally learn: oh, details do matter!


As you will see below if Fairtax passed (it won't) suddenly Dallas Texas city council would owe over 100 million dollars to the federal government for their "expenditures,"  including wage, pension, and operational expenditures.

"Certain Wages" trick.  

All cities (about 20,000)  all counties (about 4,000) county and states would owe 23% tax on all expenditures (other than education).

Why yes, and that's in the fine print, because it's in the "Tax BASE". 

Not only is it in the "tax base" -- even more importantly, that is how their math adds up.

Remember this -- it's as basic as possible. These massive other taxes, hidden in the fine print, are the biggest tax, and the only way their math seems to add up.

There simply is not enough retail sales to make the math work for a 23% tax.  It would have to be much, much higher if they only taxed retail sales.

As President Bush Tax Advisory panel showed, for a retail sales tax to bring in enough money to do as Fairtax claimed, the rate could not possibly be 23, or 33, or 43, or even 53 percent. 

 Unless you taxed retail sales more like  89% you simply do not, even on paper, bring in the amount they claim.

Here is an honest estimate of Fairtax revenue sources, given their fine print.  

President Bush Tax panel did same thing I did -- it only took them a few minutes to spot the goofy fraud.  They found it same place I did -- in the fine print.

But the Bush Tax Panel, headed by William Gale, PhD Stanford, can eat fine print tricks for breakfast, spit them out for lunch. 

 See the city county and state "expenditures"  in the tax base.  

Tax base means -- by definition -- they tax it.

Retail sales are not even listed separately.

This is from their own document __________________________________________


The basic approach by hustlers....

See, Fairtax suckers have the slogans bouncing around their brain. Put there by the hustlers -- and those who believe the hustlers. So, suckers see  Fairtax in terms of the slogans. 

Fair, simple, retail sales, transparent...on and on.

Suckers don't care about fine print.

The slogans are entirely different than the fine print.


Fairtax fine print tricks were exposed by others, too. It's not that hard, but you have to find it all. 

 Cleverly they put a few words here, a few there. Probably the most important two places ---a definition of a person in HR25,  and a clever  "assumption" of city and states paying massive taxes in a document by their public relations company, Beacon Hill.

 We show you both of those.

Oh, and the government is suppose to pay this -- in advance. Cities pay in advance. Counties pay in advance.

States pay in advance.

Cities pay in advance

Counties pay in advance.

Where is that part about taxing government "investment" as a "prepay approach"?

Well it's in a footnote.  

They rarely outright lie, but they do lie.  Like this graphic about where their revenue comes from.    

See this chart. Wow, look how spiffy!

That chart shows "92.12%"  of revenue would come from "National retail sales tax".

Oh really?  Sounds like someone did a lot of work to come up with that figure!

The only work was making this crap up.


Most Fairtax suckers  believed the slogans.  

Self confident men told us about it,  Why not?  People are suckers for self confident men, always were, always will be,

In a nutshell,  Fairtax is a goofy fraud because in the fine print are 2 Trillion dollars of goofy taxes they can not possibly collect.   They are not going to get Dallas Texas to pay them 100 million dollars.

They are not going to get the state of Texas to pay them 18 billion.

They are not going to get the state of California to pay them 24 billion, and so on.

But those slogans are wonderful!

They told us just a simple personal retail sales tax. 

 GOVERNMENT    And all "government consumption" too.  

Governments are a special kind of person.  They not only pay on retail "consumption"  they must pay on wage "expenditures".   Pay a policeman 100,000 a year in wage and benefits -- your city had to pay 23,000 to Uncle Sam.

Your city operates a library? A sewer system, each "expends" 2 million dollars, for a total of 4 million?  Your city owes almost 960,000 to Uncle Sam. 

"Natural persons"  are you and me.  Human beings.  But all governments are "persons" too -- and this type of "person"  has to pay 23% tax on all wage expenditures, all pension expenditures, all benefit expenditures.

"We assume that state and local governments will take the necessary measures to maintain the real value of their revenues, which, in this setting,  means raising their tax rates or raising their sales tax bases

All levels - - drastic increases in all tax rates.  The non -retail sales taxes are greater than the retail taxes.    These "other taxes"  are the big part of Fairtax, not the small part.

They did tell you, kinda. Right there.  "We assume". 

But how many fairtax suckers bothered to find those documents and read them closely?

  In their revenue tables, they show you that all government wages and expenditures are in the tax base.  So they told you, in their clever way. 

In a definition of "certain wages"  they tell you that wages paid by government are in the tax base.   And they tell you that includes all benefits paid -- including pensions, benefits, disability.

You didn't know that?  Well you have to be very good at spotting clever definitions -- the definition of a person is a doozey.

After definitions of commercial private courier service, after defintions of "inventory" - if you are not asleep, you should be. 

Then they tell you all governments are persons.  But a very very special kind of person -- one who, because of another clever bit of fine print -- has to pay taxes on wages paid out, pensions paid out, operating expenditures paid out.

They even have to pay taxes on capital expenditures.  And it starts with this definition....

You not only have to spot this doozey, then you have to spot the other tricks.  

Frankly, Fairtax suckers are not that smart.

They would have read every footnote, even in other documents, and remember those definitions, and put two and two together.

You also have to ignore what Boortz and others told you --ignore the slogans.


So it's up to you to figure out Dallas Texas would owe, conservatively estimated, over 100 million dollars to the federal government, because all expenditures by Dallas Texas is over 500 million.

It's up to you because Fairtax hustlers never told you.  Boortz never told you.  


Sounded great to me!  

How about those slogans!!!!   They had me at "Fair, Simple and Transparent".   Who can't go for that? 

Just a  "Very very simple"  retail sales tax on personal consumption.   Replaces all other fed taxes.

Transparent -- so simple a 7th grader can understand it.

Just a 23% tax on your personal retail consumption. 

It's Fair, right?   No one treated differently.

It's Researched, right?   22 Million in research.

No poor person is taxed-- we all get a check every month to pay the tax on "necessities".  

No Social Security taxes.

No Medicare taxes.

50% increase in take home pay (on average).

Yes yes, you will get your social security.  But there is no longer any need to fund the program.  Nor a need  to fund Medicare. All of that is covered with this simple retail sale tax, too.

Oh no, it's not too good to be true!  You have to pay those sales taxes even on doctor visits, wrote Neal Boortz.   "Maybe,"  he wrote "a ten dollar tax". 

Four dollar tax on lunch.

23 dollar tax on a 100 dollar jacket.

See-- they told you the down side too!

Oh, wait a minute, what's the whole story?

Turns out, the whole story is, it's a goofy fraud.  And they dare not pass their own goofy plan - - they know it's a fraud. 



According to the Fairtax book, the average wage earner will get 50% increase in take home pay!   

And -- and --prices will drop by 22%, so that 23% tax "is a wash".    The "extensive" reasearch proved that!

Trouble is -- no, the research does not prove that whatsoever.   The "research"  Boortz talked about, Dale Jorgenson specifically said it won't work.   

The only way all prices go down is hilarious.... everyone --remember this - everyone would have to donate what they used to ;pay in taxes to their employer.  

If -- and only if -- everyone let their employer keep the money they used to pay in social security and income taxes, if that happens -- yes, theoretically that employer could lower  his price.

Noting in HR25 about that absurdity.

Boortz didn't tell you the details.    You will pay almost exactly what you do now, for anything.  

Boortz knew that the entire time, he was well aware of this hilarious absurdity.   Do you think everyone -- without Fairtax folks even mentioning it -- are going to donate the money they used to pay in taxes to their employer?


And then that employer will use that to lower prices?


That's the kind of bullshit Boortz put out.  But he was so self confident, and such a good hustler, his fans didn't bother to check closely.

I checked -- I read what the researcher actually said.

Who knew that was a good idea?


The problem, said Neal Boortz, author of two books about Fairtax, will be this - where to put all the money.

He said that with a straight face.  What will we do with this much money coming into the US Treasury. 

Well -- in a way -- if Boortz could actually collect those massive impossible taxes, yes, it would be a problem where to put it all.    See what we mean by "impossible" to collect.  

As one Fairtax expert said "Fairtax is like taxing moonbeams and baby farts for 2 trillion dollars"



Sure it sounded crazy -- but that research!

  Twenty two million in research!   Even "liberal"  experts like Dale Jorgenson approved, in fact Jorgenson practically invented it - right?   Jorgeson, Boortz told us, proved that it will work!

(Uh, turns out,Jorgenson is actually against Fairtax or anything remotely like it, more on that below).

The most researched plan in US history!  (Uh, turns out, they can't show 1 page of that research, see details below).

There is literally no research that any city, any county, any state would pay a dime of this, much less about  900 billion. 

Fairtax cleverly "assumes"  this will be paid. 

Sounded sooooo good!


AND ME ............

Just that simple retail sales tax.

We buy lunch - pay a 4 dollar tax,  but that's free in a sense, right?  Luncy prices go down 4 dollars,  remember?

Yes a new home for 300,000 would have 70,000 dollar fed tax, but that does not matter.  That Jorgenson guy proved prices will fall that much, right (nope).

Well you don't need to buy a new home, you can buy a used home.  Used products are not taxed.   

How about cancer surgery and chemo?  Is that taxed?  Yep.   You can't get used cancer surgery.

You can't get used chemo. You can't get used nursing care.

See this 

Boortz, in the Fairtax Book, mentioned in passing "perhaps" your doctor will charge a 10 dollar tax on tests.

He did not want anyone to think this was a "free lunch".

Perhaps the doctor will charge a tax?   But the doctor has no choice.  Heart surgery can cost 150,000 dollars, that would be about 32,000 in fed taxes.

Cancer surgery and chemo patients (remember there are no exceptions) could easily owe 30,000 dollars in federal taxes.



It does not matter one  iota what your family or personal   income is--- might be 200,000 income, or 20,000.  It simply does not matter.

Anyone who "consumed" cancer surgery, "consumed"  chemo,  would owe those massive taxes.   It does not matter if insurance paid it, it does not matter if the cancer victim borrowed money to pay it.

Plus all city county and state taxes would be much higher, too.


We have offered 50,000 dollars for one page of that 22MM of research into this "very very simple"  personal retail sales tax that replaces all other fed taxes in "revenue neutral fashion."

There is no such research, not 22MM, not 22 thousand, not 22 cents, because Fairtax is not a simple personal retail sales tax to replace all other fed taxes. 

They do have some documents -- yes -- but that is no more "research" about a very simple retail personal tax to replace all other taxes than my dog is - and I don't have a dog.

What they do have is not only NOT research, it's essentially a fraud, or to be more exact and charitable, it's political theater pumped up to raise money from suckers.


Since it's totally legal to call their cat "research"  and claim it cost 22 million. That's political theater.  

Still, if you sent them any money on this basis, you should contact them if you don't like being defrauded.  If you thought they actually had 22MM in research, because they told you that, and you want the money back -- you probably have a good case in court, if you wanted to pursue it. 

Political theater is one thing - raising funds on fraudulent basis -- not so much. 

The fine print was always there, a few words here, a few there.   This is what they call "research"


If you walk up to Mike Pence today, and ask him how much taxes the city of Indianapolis would have to pay the federal government for their "wage expenditures"   -- he would not have a clue.

He could get a clue, if he looked closely at Fairtax documents like this one ...


They did tell you -- if you saw that document (unlikely) and detangled the whole thing (almost impossible without a lot of effort).


Boortz and others "kinda" told you about that in a few words, but made that sound trivial.  

Yes Boortz and others  knew they were deceptive when they told you this.

Pence probably  had no idea.  He is not a thinker, not a reader.  He had the slogans, the slogans got cheers, that's all he cared about.  It's hard to know who knew the fine print, and who did not, frankly, but Pence did not. 

Boortz did.  You can be sure Boortz did because of the clever, even devious, tortured prose in his book.  He does, for example, tell you the absurdity "even the federal government will become a major taxpayer"  then quickly tells you the fed will pay retail sales tax.

He "forgets" the massive other taxes.

The federal government would be paying ITSELF over 500 billion dollars by this goofy nonsense.   A tax on all their expenditures.  

Yes, it's goofy -- only people pay taxes.  But Fairtax has government paying itself most of it's own taxes.  That is wacko -- but the slogans sould great.

That's not what I say about who pays the taxes, and what they assume


That is not what some bad guy criticizing Fairtax says.  That is what Fairtax own documents say.   

See why we need to read the fine print?   

Especially we need to read the fine print when lying bastards write them, and deliberately give a drastically different sent of slogans to make you think the opposite of that fine print.

Fairtax is much, much, much more than a personal retail sales tax, in their own documents.  We show you those documents.

Fairtax sounds great --that simple retail sales tax.    Essentially just a retail sales tax -- paid at the store. Personal retail sales.

See their own chart from their own document.

A few other trivial taxes, but mostly just that retail sales tax you pay " at the cash register".

But wait, let's look a bit closer.....what are those NIPA taxes?  Wow, NIPA? 

Did they mention those "NIPA" taxes to you?

 Gee -- Boortz never mentioned NIPA taxes but those are the biggest taxes. In fact, the retail sales tax is nowhere near being 92% of their revenue.

I wonder how much those NIPA taxes, and the other taxes are?

Well look at this !   

Taxes -- massive taxes.  Every city, every county, every state-- even the federal government?-- has to pay massive taxes on wage expenditures, pension expenditures.

Here is a chart from sworn testimony to House Ways and Means committee-- under oath --showing a more honest estimate of the various taxes in Fairtax.

Yes, retail sales tax would be the largest single tax.   But overall, that retail sales tax is only a relatively small part of the their tax base.

Tax base means what they tax.

Yes, retail sales are taxed.

But your city, your county, your state, your library district, park district, your police department --whoever "expends" the money, must "remit" 23% tax.

If your city "expends" 20 million dollars a year on police and fire departments, including wages, pensions, benefits, operational expenditures-- your city has to "remit" 23% of that 20 million

In advance!  That's right -- in advance.

Read the fine print about that "advance" tax on government.

It is in this document.....

Here are the exact words --

 This document is part of Fairtax's so called "research".  Their own people wrote it.  Fairtax used Beacon Hill -- a public relations firm -- to put out the hilariously misleading and disingenuous documents.   But read them closely, very closely.  

They do tell you, if you study them diligently, about these massive other taxes.

But Fairtax hustlers told you it was just a very simple retail sales tax. Not even close to the truth.  

Yes, even governments -- specifically governments.  All governments.

The important thing to remember--- that is how Fairtax math adds up on paper.

Even capital expenditures -- taxed.

Building highways --taxed.

Running prisons-- taxed.

Library systems-- taxed.

Court systems- - taxed. 

Education?  Nope.  They "remove" education from the tax base.

But all other expenditures--taxed.

My my my.

Oh my.  


Massive other taxes -- and your city, your county, your state is suppose to "raise their tax rates" accordingly.

That's not what I said.

That is in Fairtax fine print.

And yes, Boortz knew it the whole time. 


 These other taxes are more than the retail sales tax.  The retail sales tax is only a part-- less than half -- of the taxes. 

Gee-- Boortz said just a "very very simple"  retail sales tax.  Yep, that's what he said.

But then we find more than 2 trillion in OTHER taxes in fairtax legislation.   Boortz does not tell us-- we have to look at the fine print very very closely.

But it's there.

You can tell Boortz is close to a crook, or a hustler, because even when he was told about these massive other taxes,he was as deceptive and disingenuous as before. 

Trillions of dollars in other taxes, on top of, in addition to that sales tax.  

I guess Boortz and others "forgot" this every day for 18 years now --- in every book, every youtube video, every speech, every public appearance.

Always forgot to tell the state of Texas their 20 or 22 billion (yes billion) dollars in taxes they would have to pay.   

Boortz has been in Dallas a dozen times -- always "forgot" to mention the 100 million or so that city would have to pay.

Boortz was all over the US in probably every state.  Never did tell them about it.

Gee I wonder why? 

That sure is a lot of "forgetting". 

I don't want to accuse  Boortz  of lying, but that is a peculiar amount of forgetting.  

Mike Pence, now VP, sponsored Fairtax HR25, in the House and later in the Senate. 

At that time, Pence had no clue what was in the fine print.  He just knew the slogans.

Why not sponsor Fairtax? The slogans sounded so good!  Could not be more to it, right?

A simple retail sales tax!

Yes, the sponsor of legislation should know the details -- and know them well.  But Pence had no clue.  His "talks" about Fairtax were straight out of Fairtax list of slogans.

Every Fairtax supporter is that same way --big on slogans, kinda stupid about the "details".

Here are some of the slogans:

A simple retail sales tax. 

Prices drop as much as the tax --so nothing cost more anyway.

You keep your entire paycheck, all researched by 80 top experts. 

The research costs 22 million dollars.

Everyone get a check every month for the tax on "necessities".  

Everyone has skin in the game.

No tax on necessities because you get a check to pay those.

No more social security taxes, medicare taxes, etc.

Just a very simple sales tax.


 Those slogans, if only they were true.

At all.

 In the fine print are massive other taxes that you have to pay, on top of, in addition to, the retail tax. 


What Mike Pence did not notice is that the retail sales tax would bring in about 1.4 Trillion dollars.

But Fairtax taxes over 3 trillion.  In fact, in today's dollars collect over 4 trillion. 

Where do they get that other 2+ trillion dollars? 

Massive other taxes, that's how they get it. By other taxes -- we mean taxes that are in their fine print, very cleverly so.


INDIANA  -- YOU OWE US 14 Billion.

Mike Pence didn't notice the other taxes.

The other taxes are mostly huge taxes on state and local "expenditures".   No, not just retail purchases.

All wage "expenditures,"  all pension "expenditures"  all capital "expenditures"   are taxed.   

The state of Indiana would owe about 14 billion.  But every county could owe taxes, too, to the federal government, on top of that.  Just a guess at the aggregate tax obligation by all counties -- another 10 billion.  Then add all cities, they too would owe those very same taxes.  Add another 20 billion.

And no one told the cities, the counties, the state, in any clear way. 


Fairtax hustlers never wrote "We tax city and states on all their pension wages and capital investment expenditures -- all expenditures other than educational expenditures".

Instead they wrote about their tax.     They do tell you, very cleverly, about their tax base. By definition  what is in the "tax base" is what they tax.  So they told you  -- sort of.

You can easily read HR25, and not realize this, but whatever is in their tax base, by defintion, they tax

Capital expenditures, pension expenditures, operational expenditures, wage expenditures, those are all in the "tax base".

Not just the state of Indiana -- every city in Indiana.  Every county. Every police department. Every park district.  Every court system. Every police system. 

Massive taxes each and every one.



If you read very very closely, they did tell you in one of their documents.  You had to find that one document, then read it extremely closely.   

State and local government are supposed to raise their taxes.

Raise their taxes over 1 trillion dollars (they don't show that part). 

All cities.

All states.

All counties. 

Even the Pentagon, even at federal level, makes no difference.  Their math is based on this.

All of those entities, and more  -- are supposed to RAISE THEIR TAX RATES

Let me repeat that.  They told you this --they told Mike Pence this, they told everyone this, in a very slick way.


All prices will drop 22%,  so the 23% tax won't be a burden.   Everyone gets a "prebate" check every month from the government.

Take home pay, wrote Boortz in the Fairtax Book, goes up by an average of 50%.  

  The only problem with Fairtax, Boortz said in interviews, where be where to put all the money.

US economy will increase by over 30%,   Social Security and Medicare taxes go away, income taxes go away,  the only federal tax is that 23% retail sales tax.

Actually that 23% sales tax is just a part of it.  And they knew that every time they said otherwise. 

Furthermore, Social Security and Medicare go from being funded, right now, by FICA and Medicare taxes, but those taxes entirely go away. 

 From almost 900 billion dollars a year coming in for those programs -- to nothing.  Not a dime.

In fact,  Fairtax has a 700 billion dollar cash give out -- the "prebates".  

Do they have research to show any of this is logical, feasible, or rational?  No.


What research?   We show you the documents they like to pass off as research.   Not only is it not research, (it's silly double speak)  it's not about a personal retail sales tax to replace all other fed taxes.


Political theater -- not a tax code

Fairtax was/ is a great sounding bit of political theater -- fully protected, and rightly so, by the first amendment.

As we find out from Bruce Bartlett, he was approached by Scientology folks who wanted him to help them push that political theater.  



 Vice President Pence actually sponsored Fairtax in Congress, along with 99 others.  He no longer mentions it, yet he sold it then as very nearly a magic wand solution to all our problems, from the debt, to Social Security, to immigration. 

Two candidates for President ran on Fairtax.  Mike Huckabee once called Fairtax his "magic wand"  he could "wave"  as President.
Over forty Republican Senators voiced support of it. 

FOX NEWS hosts pushed Fairtax -- Neil Cavuto, and Sean Hannity most of all.  

This might help explain where it went.


Fraud sounded great because their slogans sound great. 

The retail sales tax part was fine.  That was not the problem.


Hustles must sound great -- not just good, but fantastic.

Fairtax fraud is no exception to that rule. 


They must have laughed, when they wrote this...... it's total bombast, balderdash, nonsense, but it looks sophisticated, right? 

and this ......

Few people can  determine by the above what they actually tax, yet they told you.

Read that real real close.  It says they get all this money from governments.  But they put it like that, in jibberish.

Think they were not laughing at your dumb asses?

They told you -- right there.

Massive goofy impossible other taxes.

But they told you. 


Idiotically, the government is supposed to just pay 60% of it's own taxes.   That's as goofy as goofy gets.

But how do they do that?

In the fine print.  In this case, in the definition of a "person".

A long line of defintions.... you probably would never read them or understand the importance, but it's there. 

After a long list of mind numbing defintions -- such as defining what a "designated commercial private courier service is"  -- they nonchalantly describe a person as all government entities. 

The definition of a person looks like this on the page.....


Why on earth put this "definition of a person"  far far down the definitions -- after such things as the defintion of professional personal courier service??

Yet this definition -- according to their own James Bennett, #2 man in the organization, and an attorney  -- is the "legal basis"  for the massive taxes on wage, pension, capital expenditures, etc.  

Of course it can't be a fraud, with all the research, right?

Neal Boortz even gave us the name of the main researchers- - Dale Jorgenson.   Boortz again and again claimed "Harvard" researches proved Fairtax.

Uh -- no.  Actually Jorgenson said something quite different, and does not even, and never did, support Fairtax. 


Jorgenson, stunningly, wanted HIGHER income taxes  on the wealthy, at least those with "capital income" -- not some bullshit fraud Boortz was talking about.

See this -- from the interview with Jorgenson.  Does it sound like Jorgenson wants Fairtax? Hell no. 

Mr. Jorgenson's "Efficient Taxation of Income" would reform the existing income tax system, by taxing capital income at an effective rate of about 30% and labor income at a flat rate of about 10%

Jorgenson wanted to DOUBLE the tax on capital income -- and reduce the income from work to 10%.

That is extremely liberal -- double the cap gainst tax, and lower tax on work to 10%.

Does that sound like a 23% sales tax to you? That's what Jorgenson wanted, their supposed researcher!





  1. Im glad Mr Curran read the fine print and spent alot of time debunking it. There is a simpler way to debunk it, however! The bottom line with our existing income tax is it was a mechanism put in place by the original "owners" of the privately owned Federal Reserve to extract money from the US economy and put us under their control. They replaced our currency with paper money and took all the gold! This is the real bigger Fraud! The IRS is their nice Stazi tribute collection system! Well, as it turns out the original Fairtax Bill was written and pushed by Leo Linbeck, who was a contractor in Dallas,but at one time was also a chairman of the Federal Reserve in Dallas! He and his associates are the good ol boys! If the Fairtax ever was implemented it would not replace The Fed, it would just be a different way to feed the beast!

  2. I dont know if Linbeck is one of the lying bastards, or fooled by them.

    But Fairtax hustlers are not trying to pass the fraud.

    They seem to just want to raise contributions from stupid people.

    Hard telling who paid Beacon Hill for their role in the hustle.

    Whoever paid Beacon Hill is probably the culprit. Beacon Hill was very deceptive clever and misleading

    You dont do that unintentionally